Marwari Origin etc

ISO 639-2: 

raj

English:

Rajasthani

French:

rajasthani

The code raj is classified in ISO 639 as an individual language code. In practice, however, it appears to be a collection of related languages that are associated with a given geographic region.

Rajasthani (meaning 'Rajasthan-speech') is a cover term for various related languages spoken in Rajasthan. These languages are in the Rajasthani subgroup of the Indo-Aryan family. We have mapped this code to languages in the Rajasthani genetic subgroup that are spoken in Rajasthan. This includes Marwari [MKD], which has its own ISO 639-2 code, [mwr]. Thus, this language is covered by two ISO codes.

Rajasthani is an Indo-Aryan language having its roots in Vedic Sanskrit and Sauraseni Prakrit. Its script is Mahajani and Devanagri. Rajasthani is divided into four big groups, like Marwari, Dhundhari, Mewati and Hadauti. the biggest being that of Marwari. It is derived from Apabhramsa, with all its linguistic and orthographical peculiarities. Rajasthani as a language of literature suffered a great set  back during the British period. Today hundreds of poets and writers are writing in Rajasthani.  Folk literature in Rajasthani is varied and rich and consists of songs, tales, sayings, ballads, proverbs, folk tales and panegyrics. riddles and folk-plays popularly known as khyals.

  • Indo-Iranian
  • Indo-Aryan
  • Central zone
    • Western Hindi
      • Hindostani
      • Punjabi
      • Gujrati
      • Rajasthani [raj]
          • Standard Marwari
            • Marwari  [mkd] (India)
              • Godwari  [gdx] (India)
              • Mewari  [mtr] (India)
              • Merwari  [wry] (India)
            • Marwari  [mri] (Pakistan)
              • Goaria  [gig] (Pakistan)
              • Loarki  [lrk] (Pakistan)
              • Dhatki  [mki] (Pakistan)
          • Shekhawati  [swv] (India)
          • Dhundari  [dhd] (India)
        • Unclassified
          • Bagri  [bgq] (India)
          • Lohar, Gade  [gda] (India)
          • Gurgula  [ggg] (Pakistan)
          • Gujari  [gju] (India)
          • Harauti  [hoj] (India)
          • Lambadi  [lmn] (India)
          • Malvi  [mup] (India)
          • Nimadi  [noe] (India)
There is a rock inscription in Sirohi in which we find the mention of Rajasthani and Rajasthan.  Jawerchand Meghani, a renowned litterateur of Gujarat had said about Gujarati language that the original name of our Gujarati mother tongue was Rajasthani. Like other languages of the Indo-Aryan family, Gujarati is derived from Sanskrit through Prakrit and Apabhramsha. The Gujarati language that is widely used today evolved much later.
The language originally spoken in Gujarat and West Rajasthan was known as old western Rajasthani and then as Maru Gujar. Apabhramsha or ancient Gujarati was spoken in this region between the 11th and the 14th century. Old Gujarati then evolved after the establishment of the Sultanate of Gujarat in the 15th century. But it was in the 17th century that the foundations of modern Gujarat were laid

 

Marwari and Dhundhari are large groups of local dialects within Rajasthan while Malvi has an outside origin. Bagri and Mewati are small groups within the state. Each of these groups consists of so many sub-dialects with so many local names. On the outskirts of their respective areas these dialects also show the marked influence of Braj, Labanda, Sindhi, Bundeli, Bangru, Gujarati and Punjabi or their dialects in the adjoining tracts.

The Rajasthani languages are a group of related languages spoken in India and Pakistan . They are chiefly spoken in the state of Rajasthan and adjacent parts of Gujarat, in the Malwa and Nimar regions of western Madhya Pradesh, and the Pakistani states of Punjab and Sind. The Rajasthani languages are classified in the Central Zone of the Indo-Aryan languages, which also includes Hindi and Urdu. Some of the Rajasthani languages are considered by some to be dialects of Hindi; however, many linguists agree that they are sufficiently distinct from Hindi to be considered languages.

There is politics in languages too. We find striking similarity in Rajasthani language and the language of Malwa. The pride of India does not depend upon geographical delimitations.  India is known by its cultural unit and folk languages have played a great role in it.

Rajasthani has a vast literature written in various genres starting from 1500 AD. In the past, the language spoken in the Rajasthan was regarded as a dialects of western Hindi (Kellogg, 1873). George Abraham Grierson (1908) was the first scholar who gave the nomenclature 'Rajasthani' to the language, which was earlier known through its various dialects. Today, however, National Academy of Letters and University Grant Commission recognize it as a distinct language. It is also recognized by the Doordarshan & All India Radio (AIR) as a distinct language. The Marwari dialects is also recognized by the United Nation's Human Right Commission. It is also taught as such in the university of Jodhpur and Udaipur. The Rajasthan board of Secondary Education included Rajasthani in the course of studies and has been as optional subject since 1973.

Historians have divided traditional poetry into two periods: the early period starting from 1050 A.D. and ending with 1450 and the second period from 1450-1850 A.D. Thereafter it is modern poetry. The early period abounds in Jain poetry. The richest period of poetry and prose composition is the next period. All the masterpieces of traditional poetry are the products of this period. Besides a great many full length poetic works dealing with wars, mythological events and devotional themes, several dohas and geetas (kind of metre) have been composed on all kinds of subjects. Padmanabha, Vihu Sujo, Aluj are a few of the important composers of the period.

Modern poetry stars from the 40's of this century. This reflects the impact of western culture. The first book of modern poetry is Badli (cloud) by Chandra Singh (b. 1912). It describes the joys and sorrows of rain in the desert. N.R.Sanskarta, N.S.Bhatti, R.Kalpit and G.L.Vyasa are important modern poets.

Mention may also be made of Vijaja Dan Detha and Rewat Dan Charan whose contribution to modern Rajasthani literature is considerable. Drama and novel have not flourished well in Rajasthan; but short stories (known as Vat) are many and of high standard. M.D.Vyasa pioneered the modern short stories with his Varasganth (the birthday, 1956).

Since 1947, several movements have been going on in Rajasthan for its reorganization, but unfortunately it is still considered a 'dialects' of Hindi. Recently, the Rajasthan Government has recognized it as a state language, but still, there is a long way for Rajasthani language to go.